Tuesday, 5 December 2017

What is breast cancer?Breast cancer: Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment

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What is breast cancer?Breast cancer: Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment

hi, here i will be talking about a trending topic. that is breast cancer. you may hear about it many time but never focus on it. simple you may even don't know breast cancer also found in males.so, for such many information. please go through the article.



What is breast cancer?Breast cancer: Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment


Some facts on breast cancer:-

  • Breast cancer is the very common cancer among the women.
  • Risk factors can be genetic, but some lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, make it more likely to happen.
  • Symptoms include a lump or thickening of the breast, and changes to the skin or the nipple.

  Types:-

What is breast cancer:-

Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get breast cancer, too.
Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other areas. To learn more about cancer and how all cancers start and spread, see Cancer Basics.

Symptoms:-

Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include:
  • A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
  • Change in the size, shape or appearance of a breast
  • Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
  • A newly inverted nipple
  • Peeling, scaling, crusting or flaking of the pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple (areola) or breast skin
  • Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange

When to see a doctor

If you find a lump or other change in your breast — even if a recent mammogram was normal — make an appointment with your doctor for prompt evaluation.

Risk factor for breast cancer:-

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease, such as cancer. But having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you are sure to get the disease. While you can’t change some breast cancer risk factors—family history and aging, for example—there are some risk factors that you can control.


Treatment:-

Treatment will depend on:
Chemotherapy can be an option for breast cancer..
  • the type of breast cancer
  • the stage of the cancer
  • sensitivity to hormones
  • the patient's age, overall health, and preferences
  • Chemotherapy can be an option for breast cancer
The main options include:
  • radiation therapy
  • surgery
  • biological therapy, or targeted drug therapy
  • hormone therapy
  • chemotherapy
Factors affecting the choice will include the stage of the cancer, other medical conditions, and individual preference.

Surgery

If surgery is needed, the choice will depend on the diagnosis and the individual.
Lumpectomy: Removing the tumor and a small margin of healthy tissue around it can help prevent the spread of the cancer. This may be an option if the tumor is small and likely to be easy to separate from the surrounding tissue.
Mastectomy: Simple mastectomy involves removing the lobules, ducts, fatty tissue, nipple, areola, and some skin. Radical mastectomy removes muscle from the chest wall and the lymph nodes in the armpit as well.
Sentinel node biopsy: Removing one lymph node can stop the cancer spreading, because if breast cancer reaches a lymph node, it can spread further through the lymphatic system into other parts of the body.
Axillary lymph node dissection: If there are cancer cells on a node called the sentinel node, the surgeon may recommend removing several nymph nodes in the armpit to prevent the spread of disease.
Reconstruction: Following breast surgery, reconstruction can recreate the breast so that it looks similar to the other breast. This can be done at the same time as a mastectomy, or at a later date. The surgeon may use a breast implant, or tissue from another part of the patient's body.

Radiation therapy

Controlled doses of radiation are targeted at the tumor to destroy the cancer cells. Used from around a month after surgery, along with chemotherapy, it can kill any remaining cancer cells.
Each session lasts a few minutes, and the patient may need three to five sessions per week for 3 to 6 weeks, depending on the aim and the extent of the cancer.
The type of breast cancer will dictate what type of radiation therapy, if any, is most suitable.
Adverse effects include fatiguelymphedema, darkening of the breast skin, and irritation of the breast skin.

Chemotherapy

Medications known as cytotoxic drugs may be used to kill cancer cells, if there is a high risk of recurrence or spread. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy.
If the tumor is large, chemotherapy may be administered before surgery to shrink the tumor and make its removal easier. This is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy can also treat cancer that has metastasized, or spread to other parts of the body, and it can reduce some symptoms, especially in the later stages.
It may be used to reduce estrogen production, as estrogen can encourage the growth of some breast cancers.
Adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, sore mouth, hair loss, and a slightly higher susceptibility to infections. Medications can help control many of these.

Hormone blocking therapy

Hormone blocking therapy is used to prevent recurrence in hormone-sensitive breast cancers. These are often referred to as estrogen receptive (ER) positive and progesterone receptor (PR) positive cancers.
Hormone blocking therapy is normally used after surgery, but it may sometimes be used beforehand to shrink the tumor.
It may be the only option for patients who cannot undergo surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy.
The effects normally last for up to 5 years after surgery. The treatment will have no effect on cancers that are not sensitive to hormones.
Examples include:
  • tamoxifen
  • aromatase inhibitors
  • ovarian ablation or suppression
  • a luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) drug called Goserelin, to suppress the ovaries
Hormone treatment may affect a woman's future fertility.

Biological treatment

Targeted drugs destroy specific types of breast cancer. Examples include trastuzumab (Herceptin), lapatinib (Tykerb), and bevacizumab (Avastin). These drugs are all used for different purposes.
Treatments for breast and other cancers can have severe adverse effects.
The patient should discuss with a doctor the risks involved and ways to minimize the negative effects, when deciding on treatment.

prevent

There is no sure way to prevent breast cancer, but some lifestyle decisions can significantly reduce the risk of breast and other types of cancer.
These include:
  • avoiding excess alcohol consumption
  • following a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables
  • getting enough exercise
  • maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI)
Women should think carefully about their options for breast-feeding and the use of HRT following menopause, as these can affect the risk.
Preventive surgery is an option for women at high risk.
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